For example, people who interact with those who are deaf or hearing impaired may find that a face shield is better than a mask when communicating. If you must wear a face shield instead of a mask:
- Choose a face shield that wraps around the sides of your face and extends below your chin or a hooded face shield. This is based on the limited available data that suggest these types of face shields are better at preventing spray of respiratory droplets.
- Wash your hands before and after removing the face shield. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth when removing it.
- Clean and disinfect reusable face shields according to the manufacturer’s instructions or by following CDC face shield cleaning instructions. If you use a disposable face shield, wear it once and throw it away according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Mask adaptations and alternatives
CDC recognizes that wearing masks may not be possible in every situation or for some people. Those who cannot wear a mask are urged to prioritize virtual engagement when possible. For in-person activities, we have provided a few examples of what you can do to make wearing a mask more feasible and how to reduce the spread of COVID-19 if you cannot wear a mask.
Situations where wearing a mask may not be possible
- Make sure to maintain physical distance from others when you cannot wear a mask.
- CDC recommends wearing a mask while dining in a restaurant except when actively eating or drinking.
- Do not wear a mask when doing activities that may get your mask wet, like swimming at the beach or pool. A wet mask can make it difficult to breathe and may not work as well when wet.
High intensity activities
- Masks should be used in public settings, but if you are unable to wear a mask because of difficulty breathing during high intensity activities, choose a location with greater ventilation and air exchange (for instance, outdoors versus indoors) and where you can keep at least 6 feet from others during the activity.
- If you are able to wear a mask, remove your mask if it gets moist from sweat and replace it with a clean mask.
- Opt for an activity that does not require using mouth guards or helmets. Wearing a mask with these types of protective equipment is not safe if it makes it hard to breathe.
- Supervise children who are wearing a mask while playing sports.
Certain groups of people who may find it difficult to wear a mask
Some children 2 years and older, and people of any age with certain disabilities
Appropriate and consistent use of masks may be challenging for some children and for people of any age with certain disabilities, including cognitive, intellectual, developmental, sensory, and behavioral disorders.
When deciding if children and people with certain disabilities should wear a mask, determine if they can:
- Use a mask correctly
- Avoid frequent touching of the mask and their face
- Limit sucking, drooling, or having excess saliva on the mask
- Remove the mask without assistance
If children and people with certain disabilities are unable to wear a mask properly or cannot tolerate a mask, they should not wear one.
Those caring for children and people with certain disabilities who may not be able to wear a mask should
- Ask their healthcare provider for advice about their wearing a mask
- Ensure proper mask size and fit
- Remove their mask before sleeping, napping, when they may fall asleep (such as in a car seat or stroller), and in situations when continual supervision is not possible
- Consider prioritizing wearing a mask when it is difficult to keep at least 6 feet from others (for example, during carpool drop off or pick up, or when standing in line at schools or stores)
Masks should not be worn by:
- Children younger than 2 years old
- Anyone who has trouble breathing
- Anyone who is unconscious, incapacitated, or otherwise unable to remove the mask without assistance
People who are deaf or hard of hearing, and those who will interact with people who are hearing impaired
If you interact with people who rely on reading lips, you may have difficulty communicating while wearing a mask.
- Consider wearing a clear mask or a cloth mask with a clear panel
- If you are not able to get a clear mask, consider using written communication, closed captioning, or decreasing background noise to make communication possible while wearing a mask that blocks lips
People with certain underlying medical conditions
Most people with underlying medical conditions can and should wear masks.
- If you have respiratory conditions and are concerned about wearing a mask safely, discuss with your healthcare provider the benefits and potential risks of wearing a mask.
- If you have asthma, you can wear a mask. Discuss with your healthcare provider if you have any concerns about wearing a mask.
If you work in a setting where masks could increase the risk of heat-related illness or cause safety concerns (for example, straps getting caught in machinery):
- Discuss with an occupational safety and health professional about what mask would be suitable.
- Prioritize wearing masks when in close contact with other people, like during group travel or shift meetings, and remove masks when social distancing is maintained. Some localities may require wearing masks in public outdoors, and these requirements should be followed.
Mask use and carbon dioxide
Wearing a mask does not raise the carbon dioxide (CO2) level in the air you breathe
A cloth mask does not provide an airtight fit across the face. The CO2 completely escapes into the air through and around the sides of the cloth mask when you breathe out or talk. CO2 is small enough to easily pass through any cloth mask material. In contrast, the virus that causes COVID-19 is much larger than CO2, so it cannot pass as easily through a properly designed and properly worn cloth mask.
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